Published in 2019

Can legal restrictions of prenatal exposure to industrial trans-fatty acids reduce risk of childhood hematopoietic neoplasms? A population-based study

Specht, I. O., Huybrechts, I., Frederiksen, P., Steliarova-Foucher, E., Chajes, V. & Heitmann, B. L., feb. 2019, I : European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 73, 2, s. 311-318 8 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

BACKGROUND: Causes of most childhood hematopoietic neoplasms are unknown. Early age of occurrence suggests prenatal etiology. Positive associations have been reported between industrially produced trans-fatty acids (iTFAs) and risks of some cancers in adults. iTFAs are pro-inflammatory and adversely affect the beneficial effects of essential fatty acids, the latter is diminishing tumor growth. In 2004 Denmark legislated against the use of iTFA in foodstuffs. Using the entire population, we investigated if the changes in the legislation as a proxy to the reduced exposure to iTFA had affected the incidence of childhood hematopoietic neoplasms.

METHODS: We used a Cox proportional hazard model to compare the hazard of childhood hematopoietic neoplasms among children born before and after the iTFA ban, as a proxy for fetal iTFA exposure. To take the potential secular trend in hematopoietic neoplasms into account, we modeled the variation in cancer risk across birth cohorts by a piecewise linear spline with a knot in 2004, which allowed a comparison of the hazard of childhood hematopoietic neoplasms between the time before and after the iTFA ban.

RESULTS: Among children born in 1988-2008 in Denmark, 720 were diagnosed with hematopoietic neoplasms before the age of 7 years, corresponding to an overall incidence rate of 7.6 per 100 000 person years. The incidence rates increased by 2% per cohort in 1988-2004 (hazard ratio: 1.02 [1.01; 1.04]) and in 2004-2008 (hazard ratio: 1.02 [0.95; 1.11]).

CONCLUSIONS: No apparent benefit of the iTFA legislation in reducing childhood hematopoietic neoplasms was observed on population basis. Individual-level data are needed to investigate any possible associations between biomarkers of iTFA intake and risk of childhood hematopoietic neoplasms.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Vol/bind 73
Udgave nummer 2
Sider (fra-til) 311-318
Antal sider 8
ISSN 0954-3007
DOI
Status Udgivet - feb. 2019

Cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis

Skov, L., Thomsen, S. F., Kristensen, L. E., Dodge, R., Hedegaard, M. S. & Kjellberg, J., jan. 2019, I : British Journal of Dermatology. 180, 1, s. 100-107 8 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding causes of mortality in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

OBJECTIVES: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk and leading causes of mortality in patients with psoriasis or PsA.

METHODS: Individuals with a hospital-based diagnosis of PsA or psoriasis were identified using the Danish National Patient Registry. Matched control individuals were identified from the general population. The main outcome measures were risk of death and cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriasis or PsA.

RESULTS: Death rates per 1000 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals) vs. controls were 22·3 (19·7-24·9) vs. 13·9 (11·8-16·0) for patients with psoriasis and 10·8 (8·9-12·8) vs. 11·6 (9·6-13·6) for patients with PsA. Survival, according to stratified hazard ratios (HRs), was significantly lower in patients with psoriasis than in controls (HR 1·74, P < 0·001), but not in patients with PsA (HR 1·06, P = 0·19). Significantly increased risk of death was observed in patients with psoriasis vs. controls due to a number of causes; the highest risks were observed for diseases of the digestive system; endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases; and certain infectious and parasitic diseases (HRs 3·61, 3·02 and 2·71, respectively). In patients with PsA, increased mortality was observed only for certain infectious and parasitic diseases (HR 2·80) and diseases of the respiratory system (HR 1·46). Patients with psoriasis died at a younger age than controls (mean age 71·0 vs. 74·5 years, P < 0·001).

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe psoriasis have increased mortality risk compared with matched controls, due to a number of causes. Evidence to support an increased risk for patients with PsA was less convincing.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift British Journal of Dermatology
Vol/bind 180
Udgave nummer 1
Sider (fra-til) 100-107
Antal sider 8
ISSN 0007-0963
DOI
Status Udgivet - jan. 2019

Bibliografisk note

© 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between extra vitamin D from a mandatory margarine fortification program and chance of live birth among infertile women.

DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study.

SETTING: Not applicable.

PATIENT(S): The study population consisted of 16,212 women diagnosed with infertility from June 1, 1980, to August 31, 1991.

INTERVENTIONS(S): We took advantage of the mandatory vitamin D fortification program of margarine in Denmark that was abruptly stopped on May 31, 1985. The termination of the vitamin D fortification served as a cutoff point to separate the study population into various exposure groups.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between vitamin D exposure status and chance of a live birth within 12, 15, and 18 months after first infertility diagnosis.

RESULT(S): Women who were diagnosed with infertility during the vitamin D-exposed period had an increased chance of a live birth compared with women diagnosed with infertility during the nonexposed period. For women diagnosed with infertility during the wash-out period, the chance of a live birth was also increased, but somewhat lower. Similar estimates were obtained with longer follow-up, in women with anovulatory infertility, and little seasonal variation was observed when calendar period of conception was applied.

CONCLUSION(S): Our findings suggest that infertile women exposed to extra vitamin D from a margarine fortification program had an increased chance of live birth compared with women not exposed to extra vitamin D from fortification.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Fertility and Sterility
ISSN 0015-0282
DOI
Status E-pub ahead of print - 20 nov. 2019

Bibliografisk note

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Child behaviour and subsequent changes in body weight, composition and shape

Christensen, K. G., Nielsen, S. G., Olsen, N. J., Dalgård, C., Heitmann, B. L. & Larsen, S. C., 2019, I : PLoS One. 14, 12, s. e0226003

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

OBJECTIVE: Studies have found an association between child behavioural problems and overweight, but the existing evidence for this relationship is inconsistent, and results from longitudinal studies are sparse. Thus, we examined the association between behavioural problems and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI) and anthropometry over a follow-up period of 1.3 years among children aged 2-6 years.

DESIGN: The study was based on a total of 345 children from The Healthy Start Study; all children were healthy weight but predisposed to develop overweight. The Danish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), classified as SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) and SDQ Prosocial Behaviour (SDQ-PSB), was used to assess child behaviour. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between SDQ scores and subsequent change in BMI z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio, while taking possible confounding factors into account.

RESULTS: We found an association between SDQ-PSB and subsequent change in BMI z-score (β: 0.040 [95% CI: 0.010; 0.071, p = 0.009]). However, there was no evidence of an association between SDQ-PSB and measures of body composition or body shape.

CONCLUSIONS: Among 2 to 6 years old children predisposed to overweight, the association between SDQ-scores and weight gain is either absent or marginal. The SDQ-PSB score may be associated with subsequent increases in BMI z-score, but this association does not seem driven by an increased relative fat accumulation.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift PLoS One
Vol/bind 14
Udgave nummer 12
Sider (fra-til) e0226003
ISSN 1932-6203
DOI
Status Udgivet - 2019

Compliance with the Very Integrated Program (VIP) for Smoking Cessation, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Comorbidity Education Among Patients in Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Addiction

Hovhannisyan, K., Günther, M., Raffing, R., Wikström, M., Adami, J. & Tønnesen, H., 28 jun. 2019, I : International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16, 13, s. E2285

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Meeting adherence is an important element of compliance in treatment programmes. It is influenced by several factors one being self-efficacy. We aimed to investigate the association between self-efficacy and meeting adherence and other factors of importance for adherence among patients with alcohol and drug addiction who were undergoing an intensive lifestyle intervention. The intervention consisted of a 6-week Very Integrated Programme. High meeting adherence was defined as >75% participation. The association between self-efficacy and meeting adherence were analysed. The qualitative analyses identified themes important for the patients and were performed as text condensation. High self-efficacy was associated with high meeting adherence (ρ = 0.24, p = 0.03). In the multivariate analyses two variables were significant: avoid complications (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29-0.90) and self-efficacy (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00-1.63). Reflections on lifestyle change resulted in the themes of Health and Wellbeing, Personal Economy, Acceptance of Change, and Emotions Related to Lifestyle Change. A higher level of self-efficacy was positively associated with meeting adherence. Patients score high on avoiding complications but then adherence to the intervention drops. There was no difference in the reflections on lifestyle change between the group with high adherence and the group with low adherence.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Vol/bind 16
Udgave nummer 13
Sider (fra-til) E2285
ISSN 1661-7827
DOI
Status Udgivet - 28 jun. 2019

Continuous glucose monitoring in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: an observational cohort study of 186 pregnancies

Kristensen, K., Ögge, L. E., Sengpiel, V., Kjölhede, K., Dotevall, A., Elfvin, A., Knop, F. K., Wiberg, N., Katsarou, A., Shaat, N., Kristensen, L. & Berntorp, K., jul. 2019, I : Diabetologia. 62, 7, s. 1143-1153 11 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to analyse patterns of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data for associations with large for gestational age (LGA) infants and an adverse neonatal composite outcome (NCO) in pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes.

METHODS: This was an observational cohort study of 186 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes in Sweden. The interstitial glucose readings from 92 real-time (rt) CGM and 94 intermittently viewed (i) CGM devices were used to calculate mean glucose, SD, CV%, time spent in target range (3.5-7.8 mmol/l), mean amplitude of glucose excursions and also high and low blood glucose indices (HBGI and LBGI, respectively). Electronic records provided information on maternal demographics and neonatal outcomes. Associations between CGM indices and neonatal outcomes were analysed by stepwise logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounders.

RESULTS: The number of infants born LGA was similar in rtCGM and iCGM users (52% vs 53%). In the combined group, elevated mean glucose levels in the second and the third trimester were significantly associated with LGA (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.12, 2.08, and OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.12, 2.19, respectively). Furthermore, a high percentage of time in target in the second and the third trimester was associated with lower risk of LGA (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94, 0.99 and OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95, 1.00, respectively). The same associations were found for mean glucose and for time in target and the risk of NCO in all trimesters. SD was significantly associated with LGA in the second trimester and with NCO in the third trimester. Glucose patterns did not differ between rtCGM and iCGM users except that rtCGM users had lower LBGI and spent less time below target.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Higher mean glucose levels, higher SD and less time in target range were associated with increased risk of LGA and NCO. Despite the use of CGM throughout pregnancy, the day-to-day glucose control was not optimal and the incidence of LGA remained high.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Diabetologia
Vol/bind 62
Udgave nummer 7
Sider (fra-til) 1143-1153
Antal sider 11
ISSN 0012-186X
DOI
Status Udgivet - jul. 2019

Core Outcome Sets Specifically for Longterm Observational Studies: OMERACT Special Interest Group Update in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Lopez-Olivo, M. A., Negrón, J. B., Zogala, R. J., Carmona, L., Criner, K., Goel, N., Gonzalez-Lopez, L., Ingegnoli, F., Leong, A., March, L., Shea, B., Strand, V., Tugwell, P., Westrich-Robertson, T., Zamora, N. V., Christensen, R. & Suarez-Almazor, M. E., sep. 2019, I : Journal of Rheumatology. 46, 9, s. 1164-1167 4 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

OBJECTIVE: This is an update from the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Core Outcomes in Longterm Observational Studies Special Interest Group with a focus on rheumatoid arthritis.

METHODS: Preliminary data and proposed next steps were outlined and discussed by participants.

RESULTS: Domains identified after initial steps (systematic review and qualitative research) were pain, physical functioning, participation (i.e., work, social), longterm symptoms, fertility/family planning, emotional well-being, coping, financial status, and adverse events including death.

CONCLUSION: The group agreed conceptually that short-term core outcomes could be different from longer term ones. Participants emphasized the importance of analyzing the need for core domains specifically for longterm longitudinal observational studies.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Journal of Rheumatology
Vol/bind 46
Udgave nummer 9
Sider (fra-til) 1164-1167
Antal sider 4
ISSN 0315-162X
DOI
Status Udgivet - sep. 2019

Current state of evidence for endolymphatic sac surgery in Menière's disease: a systematic review

Devantier, L., Schmidt, J. H., Djurhuus, B. D., Hougaard, D. D., Händel, M. N., Liviu-Adelin Guldfred, F. & Edemann-Callesen, H., nov. 2019, I : Acta Oto-Laryngologica. 139, 11, s. 953-958 6 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Background: Endolymphatic sac surgery is an invasive procedure recommended to patients with Menière's disease. Aims/Objectives: To provide an overview and quality assessment of the existing evidence and to provide an updated assessment of the utility of endolymphatic sac surgery in Menière's disease. Material and Methods: We performed a systematic literature search for systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The AMSTAR tool was used to assess the quality of systematic reviews and the Cochrane risk of bias tool for RCTs. The overall certainty of effects for the individual outcomes was evaluated using the GRADE approach. Results: One systematic review of high quality matched the inclusion criteria, and included three RCTs. An updated literature search from the last search date of the included review provided no further relevant RCTs. The identified RCTs individually reported a positive effect of both the placebo and active treatment groups following surgery, strongly indicative of a placebo effect. The overall certainty of the effect was very low. Conclusions and significance: There is still a lack of high-quality research suggesting that endolymphatic sac surgery provides a significant amount of symptomatic relief for Menière's patients.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Acta Oto-Laryngologica
Vol/bind 139
Udgave nummer 11
Sider (fra-til) 953-958
Antal sider 6
ISSN 0001-6489
DOI
Status Udgivet - nov. 2019

Development of HiSQOL: A Hidradenitis Suppurativa-Specific Quality of Life Instrument

Thorlacius, L., Esmann, S., Miller, I., Vinding, G. & Jemec, G. B. E., jun. 2019, I : Skin appendage disorders. 5, 4, s. 221-229 9 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic and painful skin disease. In addition, HS lesions may be associated with pus and odour, potentially leading to significant stigma and, consequently, greatly affected quality of life (QOL). QOL is a multidimensional construct, which can be measured in various ways. However, generic or dermatologic QOL measures may not capture changes in QOL particularly affected in HS. Accordingly, patients and experts included in the HIdradenitis SuppuraTiva cORe outcomes set International Collaboration (HISTORIC) agreed that future clinical HS trials should measure HS-specific QOL.

Objectives: To develop an HS-specific QOL instrument (HiSQOL, Hidradenitis Suppurativa Quality of life).

Method: The initial phases of the questionnaire development, described in this study, included item generation by patient interviews, development of a pilot questionnaire, questionnaire refinement, and pilot testing.

Results: For item generation, 21 patients were interviewed individually or in focus groups. Analysis of the interviews identified 105 candidate items and, next, a pilot questionnaire was developed. Finally, item reduction and two rounds of pilot testing resulted in a 23-item questionnaire representing physical, psychological, and social QOL dimensions.

Conclusions: We have comprehensively explored on HS's possible effect on the QOL of the affected individuals and identified a 23-item HS-specific QOL questionnaire. The questionnaire proved to be feasible, acceptable, and comprehensible in the second round of pilot testing. With HiSQOL, researchers can measure HS-specific QOL in future clinical trials, potentially enabling them to discover more effective treatment options. It is envisaged, that after thorough validation in a trial setting, a streamlined version of HISQOL may also become available for clinical use in daily practice.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Skin appendage disorders
Vol/bind 5
Udgave nummer 4
Sider (fra-til) 221-229
Antal sider 9
ISSN 2296-9195
DOI
Status Udgivet - jun. 2019

Objectives: A cohort of routine care RA patients in sustained remission had biological DMARD (bDMARDs) tapered according to a treatment guideline. We studied: the proportion of patients whose bDMARD could be successfully tapered or discontinued; unwanted consequences of tapering/discontinuation; and potential baseline predictors of successful tapering and discontinuation.

Methods: One-hundred-and-forty-three patients (91% receiving TNF inhibitor and 9% a non-TNF inhibitor) with sustained disease activity score (DAS28-CRP)⩽2.6 and no radiographic progression the previous year were included. bDMARD was reduced to two-thirds of standard dose at baseline, half after 16 weeks, and discontinued after 32 weeks. Patients who flared (defined as either DAS28-CRP ⩾ 2.6 and ΔDAS28-CRP ⩾ 1.2 from baseline, or erosive progression on X-ray and/or MRI) stopped tapering and were escalated to the previous dose level.

Results: One-hundred-and-forty-one patients completed 2-year follow-up. At 2 years, 87 patients (62%) had successfully tapered bDMARDs, with 26 (18%) receiving two-thirds of standard dose, 39 (28%) half dose and 22 (16%) having discontinued; and 54 patients (38%) were receiving full dose. ΔDAS28-CRP0-2yrs was 0.1((-0.2)-0.4) (median (interquartile range)) and mean ΔTotal-Sharp-Score0-2yrs was 0.01(1.15)(mean(s.d.)). Radiographic progression was observed in nine patients (7%). Successful tapering was independently predicted by: ⩽1 previous bDMARD, male gender, low baseline MRI combined inflammation score or combined damage score. Negative IgM-RF predicted successful discontinuation.

Conclusion: By implementing a clinical guideline, 62% of RA patients in sustained remission in routine care were successfully tapered, including 16% successfully discontinued at 2 years. Radiographic progression was rare. Maximum one bDMARDs, male gender, and low baseline MRI combined inflammation and combined damage scores were independent predictors for successful tapering.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
Vol/bind 58
Tidsskriftsnummer 1
Sider (fra-til) 110-119
ISSN 1462-0324
DOI
Status Udgivet - 2019

Bibliografisk note

COPECARE

BACKGROUND: Occupational medicine seeks to reduce sick leave; however, evidence for an add-on effect to usual care is sparse. The objective of the GOBACK trial was to test whether people with low back pain (LBP) in physically demanding jobs and at risk of sick leave gain additional benefit from a 3-month complex intervention that involves occupational medicine consultations, a work-related evaluation and workplace intervention plan, an optional workplace visit, and a physical activity program, over a single hospital consultation and an MRI.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled people from the capital region of Denmark to an open-label, parallel-group randomized controlled trial with a superiority design from March 2014 through December 2015. In a hospital setting 305 participants (99 women) with LBP and in physically demanding jobs were randomized to occupational intervention (n = 153) or no additional intervention (control group; n = 152) added to a single hospital consultation giving a thorough explanation of the pain (i.e., clinical examination and MRI) and instructions to stay active and continue working. Primary outcome was accumulated sick leave days due to LBP during 6 months. Secondary outcomes were changes in neuropathic pain (painDETECT questionnaire [PDQ]), pain 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS), Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) for physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and self-assessed ability to continue working (range 0-10). An intention-to-treat analysis of sick leave at 6 months showed no significant difference between groups (mean difference in days suggestively in favor of no additional intervention: 3.50 [95% CI -5.08 to 12.07], P = 0.42). Both groups showed significant improvements in average pain score (NRS), disability (RMDQ), fear-avoidance beliefs about physical activities and work (FABQ), and physical HRQoL (SF-36 physical component summary); there were no significant differences between the groups in any secondary outcome. There was no statistically significant improvement in neuropathic pain (PDQ score), mental HRQoL (SF-36 mental component summary), and self-assessed ability to stay in job. Four participants could not complete the MRI or the intervention due to a claustrophobic attack or accentuated back pain. Workplace visits may be an important element in the occupational intervention, although not always needed. A per-protocol analysis that included the 40 participants in the intervention arm who received a workplace visit as part of the additional occupational intervention did not show an add-on benefit in terms of sick leave (available cases after 6 months, mean difference: -0.43 days [95% CI -12.8 to 11.94], P = 0.945). The main limitations were the small number of sick leave days taken and that the comprehensive use of MRI may limit generalization of the findings to other settings, for example, general practice.

CONCLUSIONS: When given a single hospital consultation and MRI, people in physically demanding jobs at risk of sick leave due to LBP did not benefit from a complex additional occupational intervention. Occupational interventions aimed at limiting biopsychological obstacles (e.g., fear-avoidance beliefs and behaviors), barriers in the workplace, and system barriers seem essential to reduce sick leave in patients with LBP. This study indicates that these obstacles and barriers may be addressed by thorough usual care.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov: NCT02015572.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift PLOS Medicine
Vol/bind 16
Udgave nummer 8
Sider (fra-til) e1002898
ISSN 1549-1277
DOI
Status Udgivet - 16 aug. 2019

Effect of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Cardiac Adipose Tissues: Secondary Analyses From a Randomized Clinical Trial

Christensen, R. H., Wedell-Neergaard, A-S., Lehrskov, L. L., Legaard, G. E., Dorph, E., Larsen, M. K., Launbo, N., Fagerlind, S. R., Seide, S. K., Nymand, S., Ball, M., Vinum, N. B., Dahl, C. N., Henneberg, M., Ried-Larsen, M., Boesen, M. P., Christensen, R., Karstoft, K., Krogh-Madsen, R., Rosenmeier, J. B., Pedersen, B. K. & Ellingsgaard, H., 3 jul. 2019, I : JAMA Cardiology.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Importance: Epicardial and pericardial adipose tissues are emerging as important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and there is a growing interest in discovering strategies to reduce the accumulation of fat in these depots.

Objective: To investigate whether a 12-week endurance or resistance training intervention regulates epicardial and pericardial adipose tissue mass.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of a randomized, assessor-blinded clinical trial initiated on August 2016 and completed April 2018. This single-center, community-based study included 50 physically inactive participants with abdominal obesity.

Interventions: Participants were randomized to a supervised high-intensity interval endurance training (3 times a week for 45 minutes), resistance training (3 times a week for 45 minutes), or no exercise (control group).

Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in epicardial and pericardial adipose tissue mass assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, based on a prespecified secondary analysis plan including 3 of 5 parallel groups.

Results: Of 50 participants (mean [SD] age, 41 [14] years, 10 men [26%]; mean [SD] body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 32 [5]), 39 [78%] completed the study. Endurance training and resistance training reduced epicardial adipose tissue mass by 32% (95% CI, 10%-53%) and 24% (95% CI, 1%-46%), respectively, compared with the no exercise control group (56% [95% CI, 24%-88%]; P = .001 and 48% [95% CI, 15%-81%]; P < .001, respectively). While there was a nonsignificant reduction in pericardial adipose tissue mass after endurance training (11% [95% CI, -5% to 27%]; P = .17), resistance training significantly reduced pericardial adipose tissue mass by 31% (95% CI, 16%-47%; P < .001) when compared with the no exercise control group. Compared with the no exercise control group, there was an increase in left ventricular mass by endurance (20 g [95% CI, 11%-30%]; P < .001) and resistance training (18 g [95% CI, 8%-28%]; P < .001). Other cardiometabolic outcomes remained unchanged after the 12-week trial period.

Conclusions and Relevance: In individuals with abdominal obesity, both endurance and resistance training reduced epicardial adipose tissue mass, while only resistance training reduced pericardial adipose tissue mass. These data highlight the potential preventive importance of different exercise modalities as means to reduce cardiac fat in individuals with abdominal obesity.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02901496.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift JAMA Cardiology
ISSN 2380-6583
DOI
Status E-pub ahead of print - 3 jul. 2019

INTRODUCTION: With an increasing prevalence of citizens of older age and with overweight, the health issues related to knee osteoarthritis (OA) will intensify. Weight loss is considered a primary management strategy in patients with concomitant overweight and knee OA. However, there are no widely available and feasible methods to sustain weight loss in patients with overweight and knee OA. The present protocol describes a randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in a 3 mg/day dosing in patients with overweight and knee OA.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 150 volunteer adult patients with overweight or obesity and knee OA will participate in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group and single-centre trial. The participants will partake in a run-in diet intervention phase (week -8 to 0) including a low calorie diet and dietetic counselling. At week 0, patients will be randomised to either liraglutide 3 mg/day or liraglutide placebo 3 mg/day for 52 weeks as an add-on to dietetic guidance on re-introducing regular foods and a focus on continued motivation to engage in a healthy lifestyle. The co-primary outcomes are changes in body weight and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score pain subscale from week 0 to week 52.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has been approved by the regional ethics committee in the Capital Region of Denmark, the Danish Medicines Agency and the Danish Data Protection Agency. An external monitoring committee (The Good Clinical Practice Unit at Copenhagen University Hospitals) will oversee the trial. The results will be presented at international scientific meetings and through publications in peer-reviewed journals.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: 2015-005163-16, NCT02905864, U1111-1171-4970 BASED ON PROTOCOL VERSION: V.6; 30 January 2017, 15:30 hours.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Artikelnummer e024065
Tidsskrift BMJ Open
Vol/bind 9
Udgave nummer 5
Antal sider 12
ISSN 2044-6055
DOI
Status Udgivet - 5 maj 2019

Bibliografisk note

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Effect of Magnetic Resonance Imaging vs Conventional Treat-to-Target Strategies on Disease Activity Remission and Radiographic Progression in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The IMAGINE-RA Randomized Clinical Trial

Møller-Bisgaard, S., Hørslev-Petersen, K., Ejbjerg, B., Hetland, M. L., Ørnbjerg, L. M., Glinatsi, D., Møller, J., Boesen, M., Christensen, R., Stengaard-Pedersen, K., Madsen, O. R., Jensen, B., Villadsen, J. A., Hauge, E-M., Bennett, P., Hendricks, O., Asmussen, K., Kowalski, M., Lindegaard, H., Nielsen, S. M., Bliddal, H., Krogh, N. S., Ellingsen, T., Nielsen, A. H., Balding, L., Jurik, A. G., Thomsen, H. S. & Østergaard, M., 5 feb. 2019, I : JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. 321, 5, s. 461-472 12 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Importance: Whether using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to guide treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) improves disease activity and slows joint damage progression is unknown.

Objective: To determine whether an MRI-guided treat-to-target strategy vs a conventional clinical treat-to-target strategy improves outcomes in patients with RA in clinical remission.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Two-year, randomized, multicenter trial conducted at 9 hospitals in Denmark. Two hundred patients with RA in clinical remission (disease activity score in 28 joints-C-reactive protein [DAS28-CRP] <3.2 and no swollen joints) were enrolled between April 2012 and June 2015. The final follow-up visit was April 2017.

Interventions: Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to an MRI-guided vs a conventional treat-to-target strategy. In the MRI-guided group, the treatment goal was absence of MRI bone marrow edema combined with clinical remission, defined as DAS28-CRP of 3.2 or less and no swollen joints. In the conventional group, the treatment goal was clinical remission.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Co-primary outcomes were proportions of patients achieving DAS28-CRP remission (DAS28-CRP <2.6) and with no radiographic progression (no increase in total van der Heijde-modified Sharp score) at 24 months. Significance testing for the primary outcome was based on 1-sided testing. Secondary outcomes were clinical and MRI measures of disease activity, physical function, and quality of life.

Results: Of 200 patients randomized (133 women [67%]; mean [SD] age, 61.6 [10.5] years; median baseline DAS28-CRP, 1.9 [interquartile range, 1.7-2.2]; van der Heijde-modified Sharp score, 18.0 [interquartile range, 7.0-42.5]), 76 patients (76%) in the MRI-guided group and 95 (95%) in the conventional group completed the study. Of these, 64 (85%) vs 83 (88%), respectively, reached the primary clinical end point (risk difference, -4.8% [1-sided 95% CI, -13.6% to + ∞; 1-sided P = .19]) and 49 (66%) vs 58 (62%), respectively, reached the primary radiographic end point (risk difference, 4.7% [1-sided 95% CI, -7.0% to + ∞; 1-sided P = .25). Of 10 key secondary end points, 8 were null and 2 showed statistically significant benefit for the MRI treat-to-target group. Seventeen patients (17%) in the MRI-guided treat-to-target group and 6 patients (6%) in the conventional treat-to-target group experienced serious adverse events.

Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with RA in clinical remission, an MRI-guided treat-to-target strategy compared with a conventional treat-to-target strategy did not result in improved disease activity remission rates or reduce radiographic progression. These findings do not support the use of an MRI-guided strategy for treating patients with RA.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01656278.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Vol/bind 321
Udgave nummer 5
Sider (fra-til) 461-472
Antal sider 12
ISSN 0002-9955
DOI
Status Udgivet - 5 feb. 2019

Background: One of the big contributors to physical inactivity in the elderly population is osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Digital motivation seems to have a positive effect on individual physical inactivity level, but limited evidence exists on the effects of digital motivation on patients with knee OA.

Objective: To investigate if motivational text messages reduce time spent physically inactive in patients with knee OA.

Method: This study was designed as an unblinded pilot randomised controlled trial, randomising participants equally (1:1) to an intervention group (motivational text messages) or control group (no intervention). Participants were recruited from six physical therapy clinics in Denmark. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18, diagnosed with knee OA, owner of a smartphone or tablet, and participating or commencing participation in the GLA:D® program. The primary outcome was time spent physically inactive, measured with a tri-axial accelerometer mounted on the lateral side of the thigh. Data on OA symptoms were obtained using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire.

Results: A total of 49 participants were screened, and 38 participants were included and randomised to either the intervention group (n = 19) or the control group (n = 19). No statistically significant difference between the two groups was found in average change of time spent physically inactive (mean difference 13.2 min/day [95% CI - 41.0 to 67.3]; P = 0.63), time spent standing (mean difference 3.0 min/day [95% CI - 22.7 to 28.7]; P = 0.81), or time spent moving (mean difference - 20.4 min/day [95% CI - 63.0 to 22.3]; P = 0.34) nor was there any difference in change between the two groups on KOOS.

Conclusion: Motivational text messages have seemed to have no effect on overall time spent physically inactive.

Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03339011. Registered 9 November 2017.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Vol/bind 5
Sider (fra-til) 112
ISSN 2055-5784
DOI
Status Udgivet - 2019

Elevated faecal calprotectin is linked to worse disease status in axial spondyloarthritis: results from the SPARTAKUS cohort

Olofsson, T., Lindqvist, E., Mogard, E., Andréasson, K., Marsal, J., Geijer, M., Kristensen, L. E. & Wallman, J. K., 1 jul. 2019, I : Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 58, 7, s. 1176-1187 12 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

OBJECTIVES: To examine faecal calprotectin (F-calprotectin) levels and presence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and their associations with disease subtype and current status in axial SpA (axSpA).

METHODS: F-calprotectin and ASCA in serum were compared between consecutive patients with a clinical axSpA diagnosis, classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA; n = 40) or AS (n = 90), and with healthy controls (n = 35). Furthermore, standard axSpA outcome measures were compared between axSpA patients (nr-axSpA and AS combined) with elevated vs normal F-calprotectin, ASCA IgA and IgG, respectively.

RESULTS: Elevated F-calprotectin (⩾50 mg/kg) was observed in 27% of nr-axSpA patients, 38% of AS patients and 6% of controls. F-calprotectin was significantly higher in AS vs nr-axSpA [AS: geometric mean 41 (95% CI 32, 54) mg/kg; nr-axSpA: 24 (95% CI 16, 38) mg/kg; P = 0.037], and in each axSpA subtype vs controls. Overall, worse disease activity and physical function scores were observed among axSpA patients with elevated vs normal F-calprotectin levels, with significant differences regarding patient's visual analogue scale for global health, ASDAS using CRP, and BASFI (adjusted for age, sex, NSAID use, anti-rheumatic treatments, and CRP). ASCA titres and seropositivity (⩾10 U/ml) were similar in nr-axSpA (IgA/IgG-seropositivity: 8%/26%) and AS (7%/28%), and clinical outcome measures did not differ between patients with elevated vs normal ASCA IgA or IgG, respectively. Compared with controls (IgA/IgG-seropositivity: 0%/17%), ASCA IgA was significantly higher in both axSpA subtypes, and IgG was significantly higher in the AS group.

CONCLUSION: In patients with axSpA, gut inflammation measured by elevated F-calprotectin is associated with worse disease activity and physical function, and may be a marker of more severe disease.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
Vol/bind 58
Udgave nummer 7
Sider (fra-til) 1176-1187
Antal sider 12
ISSN 1462-0324
DOI
Status Udgivet - 1 jul. 2019

Bibliografisk note

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Endorsement of the 66/68 Joint Count for the Measurement of Musculoskeletal Disease Activity: OMERACT 2018 Psoriatic Arthritis Workshop Report

Duarte-García, A., Leung, Y. Y., Coates, L. C., Beaton, D., Christensen, R., Craig, E. T., de Wit, M., Eder, L., Fallon, L., FitzGerald, O., Gladman, D. D., Goel, N., Holland, R., Lindsay, C., Maxwell, L., Mease, P., Orbai, A. M., Shea, B., Strand, V., Veale, D. J., Tillett, W. & Ogdie, A., aug. 2019, I : Journal of Rheumatology. 46, 8, s. 996-1005 10 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

OBJECTIVE: The Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set for randomized controlled trials and longitudinal observational studies has recently been updated. The joint counts are central to the measurement of the peripheral arthritis component of the musculoskeletal (MSK) disease activity domain. We report the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2018 meeting's approaches to seek endorsement of the 66/68 swollen and tender joint count (SJC66/TJC68) for inclusion in the PsA Core Outcome Measurement Set (COS).

METHODS: Using the OMERACT Filter 2.1 Instrument Selection Process, the SJC66/TJC68 was assessed for (1) domain match, (2) feasibility, (3) numerical sense (construct validity), and (4) discrimination (test retest reliability, longitudinal construct validity, sensitivity in clinical trials, and thresholds of meaning). A protocol was designed to assess the measurement properties of the SJC66/TJC68 joint count. The results were summarized in a Summary of Measurement Properties table developed by OMERACT. OMERACT members discussed and voted on whether the strength of the evidence supported that the SJC66/TJC68 had passed the OMERACT Filter as an outcome measurement instrument for the PsA COS.

RESULTS: OMERACT delegates endorsed the use of the SJC66/TJC68 for the measurement of the peripheral arthritis component of the MSK disease activity domain. Among patient research partners, 100% voted for a "green" endorsement, whereas among the group of other stakeholders, 88% voted for a "green" endorsement.

CONCLUSION: The SJC66/TJC68 is the first fully endorsed outcome measurement instrument using the OMERACT Filter 2.1 and the first instrument fully endorsed within the PsA COS.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Journal of Rheumatology
Vol/bind 46
Udgave nummer 8
Sider (fra-til) 996-1005
Antal sider 10
ISSN 0315-162X
DOI
Status Udgivet - aug. 2019

Evaluation of a technology assisted physical activity intervention among hospitalised patients: A randomised study

Dall, C. H., Andersen, H., Povlsen, T. M. & Henriksen, M., 4 sep. 2019, I : European Journal of Internal Medicine.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is common during hospitalisation and poses a threat to functional capacity and independency in the elderly.

AIM: We aimed to assess the effect of physical activity measurements with visual feedback about time spent in various activities on the average daily time spent out of bed during hospitalisation.

METHODS: We recorded physical activity during hospitalisation by accelerometers and compared the effect of the visual feedback (intervention) with no feedback (control) on time spent out of bed. Patients admitted to the pulmonary ward were invited and assigned to intervention with feedback or control with no feedback in 6 alternating waves of approximately 18 patients each. The order of feedback/no feedback was randomised at the outset of the study. The visual feedback intervention group was provided with visual feedback of the daily time spent in bed, sitting, standing, and walking. The control group did not receive feedback.

RESULTS: 93 patients completed the study with a median length of stay of 5 days. Across all patients there were no statistically significant group differences in daily time out of bed; however, patients with independent mobility spent 51 minutes (95% CI 0 to 102; P = .049) more out of bed when provided with visual feedback compared to no feedback.

CONCLUSIONS: A simple technology assisted physical activity intervention with visual feedback to encourage mobility was not effective at increasing time spent out of bed among hospitalised patients. With feedback, a subgroup of patients with independent walking abilities increased time out of bed and may benefit from this type of intervention.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01945749.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift European Journal of Internal Medicine
ISSN 0953-6205
DOI
Status E-pub ahead of print - 4 sep. 2019

Bibliografisk note

Copyright © 2019 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Exercise-Induced Changes in Visceral Adipose Tissue Mass Are Regulated by IL-6 Signaling: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Wedell-Neergaard, A-S., Lang Lehrskov, L., Christensen, R. H., Legaard, G. E., Dorph, E., Larsen, M. K., Launbo, N., Fagerlind, S. R., Seide, S. K., Nymand, S., Ball, M., Vinum, N., Dahl, C. N., Henneberg, M., Ried-Larsen, M., Nybing, J. D., Christensen, R., Rosenmeier, J. B., Karstoft, K., Pedersen, B. K., Ellingsgaard, H. & Krogh-Madsen, R., 2 apr. 2019, I : Cell Metabolism. 29, 4, s. 844-855.e3

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Visceral adipose tissue is harmful to metabolic health. Exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates lipolysis and is released from skeletal muscle during exercise. We hypothesized that exercise-induced reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass are mediated by IL-6. In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, we assigned abdominally obese adults to tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor antibody) or placebo during a 12-week intervention with either bicycle exercise or no exercise. While exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue mass, this effect of exercise was abolished in the presence of IL-6 blockade. Changes in body weight and total adipose tissue mass showed similar tendencies, whereas lean body mass did not differ between groups. Also, IL-6 blockade increased cholesterol levels, an effect not reversed by exercise. Thus, IL-6 is required for exercise to reduce visceral adipose tissue mass and emphasizes a potentially important metabolic consequence of IL-6 blockade.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Cell Metabolism
Vol/bind 29
Udgave nummer 4
Sider (fra-til) 844-855.e3
ISSN 1550-4131
DOI
Status Udgivet - 2 apr. 2019

BACKGROUND: Exercise therapy is recommended for knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the underlying mechanisms of pain relief are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of exercise on muscle perfusion assessed by dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and its association with changes in pain in patients with knee OA.

METHODS: Exploratory outcome analyses of a randomised controlled study with per-protocol analyses ( ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01545258) performed at an outpatient clinic at a public hospital in Denmark. We compared 12 weeks of supervised exercise therapy 3 times per week (ET) with a no attention control group (CG). Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to assess group mean differences in changes from baseline to week 12 in knee muscle perfusion quantified by DCE-MRI, patient-reported pain and function using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire, knee extensor and flexor muscle strength tests, and the six-minute walking test (6MWT). Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to determine the correlation between changes in DCE-MRI variables, KOOS, muscle strength, and 6MWT. The potential effect mediation of the DCE-MRI perfusion variables was investigated in a post-hoc mediation analysis.

RESULTS: Of 60 participants randomised with knee osteoarthritis, 33 (ET, n = 16, CG, n = 17) adhered to the protocol and had complete DCE-MRI data. At follow-up, there were significant group differences in muscle perfusion changes and clinically relevant group differences in KOOS pain changes (10.7, 95% CI 3.3 to 18.1, P = 0.006) in favor of ET. There were no significant between-group differences on muscle strength and function. The changes in pain and muscle perfusion were significantly correlated (highest Spearman's rho = 0.42, P = 0.014). The mediation analyses were generally not statistically significant.

CONCLUSION: The pain-reducing effects of a 12-week exercise program are associated with changes in knee muscle perfusion quantified by DCE-MRI in individuals with knee OA, but whether the effects are mediated by muscle perfusion changes remains unclear.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01545258 , first posted March 6, 2012.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Vol/bind 20
Udgave nummer 1
Sider (fra-til) 491
ISSN 1471-2474
DOI
Status Udgivet - 27 okt. 2019

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