Published in 2017

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in chronic Achilles tendinopathy

Rathcke, M. W., Lind, M., Boesen, M. I., Nissen, N., Boesen, A. P., Mygind-Klavsen, B. & Hölmich, P. 18 sep. 2017 I : Ugeskrift for laeger. 179, 38

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

The menisci play a major role in knee function regarding joint movement, stability, load distribution and load transmission. Injuries to the menisci cause pain, and meniscal tears are a common reason for patient referral. In Denmark, partial meniscectomy increased significantly until 2010, and several studies have questioned the long-term effect of meniscectomy as an overall procedure. A Danish national clinical guideline on knee meniscal pathology was published in May 2016, and this article is a short summary of updated knowledge on meniscal pathology and relevant conclusions from the guideline.

Originalsprog Dansk
Tidsskrift Ugeskrift for laeger
Vol/bind 179
Tidsskriftsnummer 38
ISSN 0041-5782
Status Udgivet - 18 sep. 2017

First Line Biological Treatment in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Prescription Rates, Baseline Demographics and Disease Activity. a Collaboration between Biological Registers in the Five Nordic Counties

Glintborg, B., Lindström, U., Aaltonen, K., Kristianslund, E. K., Gudbjornsson, B., Chatzidionysiou, K., Askling, J., Nordström, D., Hetland, M. L., Guiseppe, D. D., Dreyer, L., Jørgensen, T. S., Kristensen, L. E., Eklund, K., Grondal, G., Ernestam, S., Joensuu, J., Kvien, T. K., Lie, E., Fagerli, K. M., Geirsson, A. J., Jonsson, H. & Jacobsson, L. T. H. 2017 I : Arthritis & Rheumatology. 69, S10, 1541

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftKonferenceabstrakt i tidsskriftForskningpeer review

Originalsprog Engelsk
Artikelnummer 1541
Tidsskrift Arthritis & Rheumatology
Vol/bind 69
Tidsskriftsnummer S10
ISSN 1537-2960
Status Udgivet - 2017

GRADE Equity Guidelines 3: Health equity considerations in rating the certainty of synthesized evidence

Welch, V. A., Akl, E. A., Pottie, K., Ansari, M. T., Briel, M., Christensen, R., Dans, A., Dans, L., Eslava-Schmalbach, J. H., Guyatt, G., Hultcrantz, M., Jull, J., Katikireddi, S. V., Lang, E., Matovinovic, E., Meerpohl, J., Morton, R., Mosdøl, A., Murad, M. H., Petkovic, J., Schunemann, H. J., Sharaf, R., Shea, B., Singh, J. A., Solà, I., Stanev, R., Stein, A. T., Thabane, L., Tonia, T., Tristan, M., Vitols, S., Watine, J. & Tugwell, P. 4 apr. 2017 I : Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process.

STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working group members and other methodologists.

RESULTS: We developed consensus-based guidance to help address health equity when rating the certainty of synthesized evidence (i.e., quality of evidence). When health inequity is determined to be a concern by stakeholders, we propose five methods for explicitly assessing health equity: 1) Include health equity as an outcome; 2) Consider patient-important outcomes relevant to health equity; 3) Assess differences in the relative effect size of the treatment; 4) Assess differences in baseline risk and the differing impacts on absolute effects; and 5) Assess indirectness of evidence to disadvantaged populations and/or settings.

CONCLUSION: The most important priority for research on health inequity and guidelines is to identify and document examples where health equity has been considered explicitly in guidelines. Although there is a weak scientific evidence base for assessing health equity, this should not discourage the explicit consideration of how guidelines and recommendations affect the most vulnerable members of society.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
ISSN 0895-4356
Status Udgivet - 4 apr. 2017

Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

Kristensen, S. K., Larsen, S. C., Olsen, N. J., Fahrenkrug, J. & Heitmann, B. L. mar. 2017 I : Psychoneuroendocrinology. 77, s. 182-185 4 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

BACKGROUND: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results.

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing status or weekly hair washing frequency among women.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1-2cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing.

RESULTS: No statistically significant difference (p=0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean: 137pg/mg [95% CI: 122,153]) and women with natural hair color (adjusted mean: 139pg/mg [95% CI: 123,155]). Frequency of hair washing was not associated with HCC (β: -3.7 [95% CI: -9.0, 1.5; P=0.20]).

CONCLUSIONS: This study of 266 Danish women provides no evidence in support of an association between HCC and hair dyeing status or hair washing frequency.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Psychoneuroendocrinology
Vol/bind 77
Sider (fra-til) 182-185
Antal sider 4
ISSN 0306-4530
Status Udgivet - mar. 2017

Hand bone loss in early rheumatoid arthritis during a methotrexate-based treat-to-target strategy with or without adalimumab-a substudy of the optimized treatment algorithm in early RA (OPERA) trial

Ørnbjerg, L. M., Østergaard, M., Jensen, T., Hørslev-Petersen, K., Stengaard-Pedersen, K., Junker, P., Ellingsen, T., Ahlquist, P., Lindegaard, H., Linauskas, A., Schlemmer, A., Dam, M. Y., Hansen, I., Lottenburger, T., Ammitzbøll, C. G., Jørgensen, A., Krintel, S. B., Raun, J., Hetland, M. L., Slot, O., Nielsen, L. K., Skjødt, H., Majgaard, O., Lorenzen, T., Horn, H. C., Kowalski, M., Johansen, I. L., Pedersen, P. M., Manilo, N. & Bliddal, H. 1 apr. 2017 I : Clinical rheumatology. 36, 4, s. 781-789

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

This study aims to investigate 1-year hand bone loss (HBL1-year) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with a methotrexate (MTX) and intra-articular triamcinolone treat-to-target strategy +/- adalimumab and to determine if HBL6months is associated with radiographic progression after 2 years. In a clinical trial (OPERA) of 180 treatment-naive early RA patients, bone mineral density (BMD) was estimated from hand radiographs with digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) at baseline, after 6 (n = 90) and 12 months (n = 70) of follow-up. Baseline and 2-year radiographs were scored according to the Sharp/van der Heijde method. Baseline characteristics and HBL6months (0-6 months changes in DXR-BMD) were investigated as predictors of structural damage by univariate linear (∆ total Sharp/van der Heijde score (TSS) as dependent variable) and logistic (+/-radiographic progression (∆TSS >0) as dependent variable) regression analyses. Variables with p < 0.10 were included in multivariable models. In 70 patients with available HBL1-year data, HBL1-year was median (interquartile range (IQR)) -1.9 (-3.3; -0.26 mg/cm(2)) in the MTX + placebo group and -1.8 (-3.6; 0.06) mg/cm(2) in the MTX + adalimumab group, p = 0.98, Wilcoxon signed-rank. Increased HBL (compared to general population reference values) was found in 26/37 and 23/33 patients in the MTX + placebo and MTX + adalimumab groups, chi-squared = 0.99. In 90 patients with HBL6months data and 2-year radiographic data, HBL6months was independently associated with ∆TSS after 2 years (β = -0.086 (95% confidence interval = -0.15; -0.025) TSS unit/mg/cm(2) increase, p = 0.006) but not with presence of radiographic progression (∆TSS >0) (OR 0.96 (0.92-1.0), p = 0.10). In early RA patients treated with a methotrexate-based treat-to-target strategy, the majority of patients had increased HBL1-year, irrespective of adalimumab; HBL6months was independently associated with ∆TSS after 2 years.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Clinical rheumatology
Vol/bind 36
Tidsskriftsnummer 4
Sider (fra-til) 781-789
ISSN 0770-3198
Status Udgivet - 1 apr. 2017

Harms associated with taking nalmefene for substance use and impulse control disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Johansen, K. G. V., Tarp, S., Astrup, A., Lund, H., Pagsberg, A. K. & Christensen, R. 29 aug. 2017 I : P L o S One. 12, 8, s. 1-14 14 s., e0183821

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

IMPORTANCE: Nalmefene is a newly approved drug for alcohol use disorder, but the risk of harms has not been evaluated from empirical trial evidence.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the harm of nalmefene administered to individuals diagnosed with substance use or impulse control disorders by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

DATA SOURCES: A search was performed in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2014), MEDLINE via PubMed (1950), EMBASE via Ovid (1974), and through December 2014.

STUDY SELECTION: This study included only randomised controlled trials with placebo or active controls that administered nalmefene to adult individuals for treating impulse control and/or substance use disorders. Both published and unpublished randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Published information from the trials was supplemented by contact between reviewers and industry sponsor. Data were combined using two meta-approaches in fixed effects models; Peto Odds Ratios and risk differences were reported with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs).

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Number of patients with serious adverse events, including specific psychiatric serious adverse events and withdrawals due to adverse events.

RESULTS: Of 20 potentially relevant studies, 15 randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, and 8 of these provided data enabling the meta-analysis. Overall, serious adverse events did not occur more often in the nalmefene group than in the placebo group (Peto Odds Ratio = 0.97 [95% CI 0.64-1.44]; P = 0.86). Risk of psychiatric serious adverse events was slightly elevated, albeit not at a statistically significant level (Peto Odds Ratio = 1.32 [95% CI 0.62, 2.83]; P = 0.47). Withdrawals due to adverse events were significantly more likely to occur with nalmefene compared to placebo (Peto Odds Ratio = 3.22 [95% CI 2.46-4.22]; P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The three-fold increased risk of withdrawal from treatment on nalmefene due to adverse events is a matter of safety concern. The nature of these adverse events cannot be elucidated further without access to individual patients data.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Artikelnummer e0183821
Tidsskrift P L o S One
Vol/bind 12
Tidsskriftsnummer 8
Sider (fra-til) 1-14
Antal sider 14
ISSN 1932-6203
Status Udgivet - 29 aug. 2017

Health Equity Considerations for Developing and Reporting Patient-reported Outcomes in Clinical Trials: A Report from the OMERACT Equity Special Interest Group

Petkovic, J., Barton, J. L., Flurey, C., Goel, N., Bartels, C. M., Barnabe, C., de Wit, M. P. T., Lyddiatt, A., Lacaille, D., Welch, V., Boonen, A., Shea, B., Christensen, R., Maxwell, L. J., Campbell, W., Jull, J., Toupin-April, K., Singh, J. A., Goldsmith, C. H., Sreih, A. G., Pohl, C., Hofstetter, C., Beaton, D. E., Buchbinder, R., Guillemin, F. & Tugwell, P. S. nov. 2017 I : Journal of Rheumatology. 44, 11, s. 1727-1733 7 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

OBJECTIVE: Despite advances integrating patient-centered outcomes into rheumatologic studies, concerns remain regarding their representativeness across diverse patient groups and how this affects equity. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Equity Working Group aims to determine whether and how to address equity issues within the core outcome sets of domains and instruments.

METHODS: We surveyed current and previous OMERACT meeting attendees and members of the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Group regarding whether to address equity issues within the OMERACT Filter 2.0 Core Outcome Sets and how to assess the appropriateness of domains, instruments, and measurement properties among diverse patients. At OMERACT 2016, results of the survey and a narrative review of differential psychosocial effects of rheumatoid arthritis (i.e., on men) were presented to stimulate discussion and develop a research agenda.

RESULTS: We proposed 6 moments for which an equity lens could be added to the development, selection, or testing of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM): (1) recruitment, (2) domain selection, (3) feasibility in diverse settings, (4) instrument validity, (5) thresholds of meaning, and (6) consideration of statistical power of subgroup analyses for outcome reporting.

CONCLUSION: There is a need to (1) conduct a systematic review to assess how equity and population characteristics have been considered in PROM development and whether these differences influence the ranking of importance of outcome domains or a patient's response to questionnaire items, and (2) conduct the same survey described above with patients representing groups experiencing health inequities.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Journal of Rheumatology
Vol/bind 44
Tidsskriftsnummer 11
Sider (fra-til) 1727-1733
Antal sider 7
ISSN 0315-162X
Status Udgivet - nov. 2017

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe how group-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with fibromyalgia can influence patients' self-efficacy and ability to cope with their illness.

BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation is recommended in the management of fibromyalgia. Self-efficacy is said to influence and predict adaptive coping behaviours and functioning. However, knowledge is lacking on how rehabilitation programmes may influence self-efficacy and ability to cope, from the patients' perspective.

DESIGN: Grounded theory study of semi-structured focus group interviews.

METHODS: Participants (n = 17) were included in four focus groups that had completed a two-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme together. Interviews were conducted four weeks after each group had completed the programme. The analysis was conducted constant comparatively applying open, axial and selective coding.

RESULTS: Categories (in italics) were derived from data in which the explanatory core category was identified: Learning to accept and live with pain as a life condition, and linked to three categories mutually influencing each other: Increased self-acceptance of living with the illness, experiencing acceptance from others and developing new coping strategies. Thus, patients benefitted from multidisciplinary rehabilitation with stronger self-efficacy and expectations to their future coping. However, limitations in the programme were identified, as the programme was short and intensive with no subsequent follow-up, and social welfare was not sufficiently addressed. Participants also found it difficult to maintain knowledge and were lacking individual sessions with the psychologist and had waited long to receive rehabilitation.

CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation may advantageously be offered to patients with fibromyalgia. However, earlier action with longer programmes, in which patients' social situation is addressed, comprising individual sessions with the psychologist, with multiple repetitions of the content and follow-up sessions, may further enhance the patients' self-efficacy and coping with their illness.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift BBA Clinical
Vol/bind 26
Tidsskriftsnummer 7-8
Sider (fra-til) 931-945
Antal sider 15
ISSN 0962-1067
Status Udgivet - apr. 2017

Impact of age and sex on the incidence and prevalence of psoriatic arthritis

Egeberg, A. & Kristensen, L. E. 1 aug. 2017 I : Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
ISSN 0003-4967
Status Udgivet - 1 aug. 2017

OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare the outcomes of adaptation and physical activity programmes regarding activities of daily living (ADL) ability following interdisciplinary rehabilitation in women with fibromyalgia.

METHODS: Participants (n = 85) were quasi-randomized to 16-week adaptation (ADAPT) or physical activity (ACTIVE) programmes following 2-week interdisciplinary rehabilitation. Primary outcomes were ADL motor and ADL process ability, measured with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) at 4-week follow-up. Data were analysed per protocol.

RESULTS: Participants (ADAPT, n = 21; ACTIVE, n = 27) did not differ from withdrawers (n = 37). Improvements in ADL ability in the ADAPT (ADL motor mean change = 0.43 logits (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.31-0.56); ADL process mean change = 0.34 logits (95% CI = 0.17-0.52)) and ACTIVE (ADL motor mean change = 0.33 logits (95% CI = 0.22-0.43); ADL process mean change = 0.25 logits (95% CI = 0.12-0.38)) groups were statistically significant, with no differences between groups. Responder analyses revealed that 63% of all participants obtained clinically relevant improvements in ADL motor ability and 48% in ADL process ability.

CONCLUSION: Although limited by a large drop-out, this exploratory study showed that both adaptation and physical activity programmes following interdisciplinary rehabilitation improved ADL ability in the majority of participants. ADL ability outcomes were independent of group allocation (ADAPT vs ACTIVE), suggesting efficacy of both programmes.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Vol/bind 49
Tidsskriftsnummer 3
Sider (fra-til) 241-250
Antal sider 10
ISSN 1650-1977
Status Udgivet - 6 mar. 2017

Incidence and prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in Denmark: a nationwide register linkage study

Egeberg, A., Kristensen, L. E., Thyssen, J. P., Gislason, G. H., Gottlieb, A. B., Coates, L. C., Jullien, D., Gisondi, P., Gladman, D., Skov, L. & Mallbris, L. 2017 I : Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 76, 9, s. 1591-1597

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence and temporal trends of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in the general population in Denmark.

METHODS: Using nationwide registry data, we estimated the number of patients with incident PsA within each 1-year period between 1997 and 2011 and calculated the rate of PsA cases within gender and age subgroups. Incidence rates were presented per 100 000 person-years.

RESULTS: There was a female predominance ranging from 50.3% (1998) to 59.2% (2010), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47-50 years. We identified a total of 12 719 patients with PsA (prevalence=0.22%), including 9034 patients where the PsA diagnosis was made by a rheumatologist (prevalence=0.16%). Incidence rates of PsA (per 100 000 person-years) increased from 7.3 in 1997 to a peak incidence of 27.3 in 2010. Incidence rates were highest for women and patients aged 50-59 years, respectively. The use of systemic non-biologic agents, that is, methotrexate, leflunomide, ciclosporin or sulfasalazine increased over the 15-year study course and were used in 66.3% of all patients. Biologic agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, golimumab or ustekinumab) were used in 17.7% of patients with PsA.

CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear trend of rising PsA incidence on a national level. While the cause remains unclear, our findings might be explained by increased attention by patients and physicians.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Vol/bind 76
Tidsskriftsnummer 9
Sider (fra-til) 1591-1597
ISSN 0003-4967
Status Udgivet - 2017

Incidence of knee and hip replacements in rheumatoid arthritis patients following introduction of biological dmards: an interrupted time series analysis using nationwide health care registers

Cordtz, R. L., Hawley, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Kristensen, L. E., Overgaard, S., Odgaard, A. & Dreyer, L. 2017 I : Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 76, 2, s. 159 1 s., OP0251

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftKonferenceabstrakt i tidsskriftForskningpeer review

Originalsprog Dansk
Artikelnummer OP0251
Tidsskrift Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Vol/bind 76
Tidsskriftsnummer 2
Sider (fra-til) 159
Antal sider 1
ISSN 0003-4967
Status Udgivet - 2017

Bibliografisk note


Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience debilitating cognitive deficits, with risk of impaired occupational and psychosocial functioning. However, knowledge of how these deficits impact the patients' ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL), tasks related to self-care and domestic life is limited. We explored the relation between impaired cognitive function and the ability to perform ADL in patients with BD. A total of 42 outpatients (mean age 36 years (range 19.0-58.0 years), 69% women) with BD in remission and with subjective cognitive complaints (≥ 13 on the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment questionnaire (COBRA)) were included. Objective neurocognitive function was evaluated with a short comprehensive cognitive test battery and ADL ability was evaluated with the performance-based Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) in the homes of the patients. Our findings indicate that low processing speed correlated with decreased ADL ability, and processing speed as measured by the cognitive test battery thus seems to be significantly related to patients' ability to live independently in the community. Overall, adding a performance based test to assess ADL ability in patients with BD home-surroundings seems to provide new insights regarding the effect of cognitive impairment in patients with BD.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Psychiatry Research
Vol/bind 249
Sider (fra-til) 268-274
Antal sider 7
ISSN 0165-1781
Status Udgivet - mar. 2017

Infographic: Effects of specific injury prevention programmes in football

Thorborg, K., Krommes, K. K., Esteve, E., Clausen, M. B., Bartels, E. M. & Rathleff, M. S. aug. 2017 I : British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51, 20

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift British Journal of Sports Medicine
Vol/bind 51
Tidsskriftsnummer 20
ISSN 0306-3674
Status Udgivet - aug. 2017

International patient and physician consensus on a psoriatic arthritis core outcome set for clinical trials

Orbai, A-M., de Wit, M., Mease, P., Shea, J. A., Gossec, L., Leung, Y. Y., Tillett, W., Elmamoun, M., Callis Duffin, K., Campbell, W., Christensen, R., Coates, L., Dures, E., Eder, L., FitzGerald, O., Gladman, D., Goel, N., Grieb, S. D., Hewlett, S., Hoejgaard, P., Kalyoncu, U., Lindsay, C., McHugh, N., Shea, B., Steinkoenig, I., Strand, V. & Ogdie, A. apr. 2017 I : Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 76, 4, s. 673-680 8 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

OBJECTIVE: To identify a core set of domains (outcomes) to be measured in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) clinical trials that represent both patients' and physicians' priorities.

METHODS: We conducted (1) a systematic literature review (SLR) of domains assessed in PsA; (2) international focus groups to identify domains important to people with PsA; (3) two international surveys with patients and physicians to prioritise domains; (4) an international face-to-face meeting with patients and physicians using the nominal group technique method to agree on the most important domains; and (5) presentation and votes at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) conference in May 2016. All phases were performed in collaboration with patient research partners.

RESULTS: We identified 39 unique domains through the SLR (24 domains) and international focus groups (34 domains). 50 patients and 75 physicians rated domain importance. During the March 2016 consensus meeting, 12 patients and 12 physicians agreed on 10 candidate domains. Then, 49 patients and 71 physicians rated these domains' importance. Five were important to >70% of both groups: musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, structural damage, pain and physical function. Fatigue and participation were important to >70% of patients. Patient global and systemic inflammation were important to >70% of physicians. The updated PsA core domain set endorsed by 90% of OMERACT 2016 participants includes musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, pain, patient global, physical function, health-related quality of life, fatigue and systemic inflammation.

CONCLUSIONS: The updated PsA core domain set incorporates patients' and physicians' priorities and evolving PsA research. Next steps include identifying outcome measures that adequately assess these domains.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Vol/bind 76
Tidsskriftsnummer 4
Sider (fra-til) 673-680
Antal sider 8
ISSN 0003-4967
Status Udgivet - apr. 2017

Interventions for treating persistent pain in survivors of torture

Baird, E., Williams, A. C. D. C. & Amris, K. 18 aug. 2017 I : Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8, s. CD012051

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftReviewForskningpeer review

BACKGROUND: Persistent (chronic) pain is a frequent complaint in survivors of torture, particularly but not exclusively pain in the musculoskeletal system. Torture survivors may have no access to health care; where they do, they may not be recognised when they present, and the care available often falls short of their needs. There is a tendency in state and non-governmental organisations' services to focus on mental health, with poor understanding of persistent pain, while survivors may have many other legal, welfare, and social problems that take precedence over health care.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of interventions for treating persistent pain and associated problems in survivors of torture.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in any language in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, LILACS, and PsycINFO, from database inception to 1 February 2017. We also searched trials registers and grey literature databases.

SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs of interventions of any type (medical, physical, psychological) compared with any alternative intervention or no intervention, and with a pain outcome. Studies needed to have at least 10 participants in each arm for inclusion.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We identified 3578 titles in total after deduplication; we selected 24 full papers to assess for eligibility. We requested data from two completed trials without published results.We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We calculated standardised mean difference (SMD) and effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table.

MAIN RESULTS: Three small published studies (88 participants) met the inclusion criteria, but one had been retracted from publication because of ethical problems concerned with confidentiality and financial irregularities. Since these did not affect the data, the study was retained in this review. Despite the search including any intervention, only two types were represented in the eligible studies: two trials used cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with biofeedback versus waiting list on unspecified persistent pain (58 participants completed treatment), and one examined the effect of complex manual therapy versus self-treatment on low back pain (30 participants completed treatment). Excluded studies were largely either not RCTs or did not report pain as an outcome.There was no difference for the outcome of pain relief at the end of treatment between CBT and waiting list (two trials, 58 participants; SMD -0.05, 95% CI -1.23 to 1.12) (very low quality evidence); one of these reported a three-month follow-up with no difference between intervention and comparison (28 participants; SMD -0.03, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.23) (very low quality evidence). The manual therapy trial also reported no difference between complex manual therapy and self-treatment (30 participants; SMD -0.48, 95% CI -9.95 to 0.35) (very low quality evidence). Two studies reported dropouts, one with partial information on reasons; none of the studies reported adverse effects.There was no information from any study on the outcomes of use of analgesics or quality of life.Reduction in disability showed no difference at the end of treatment between CBT and waiting list (two trials, 57 participants; SMD -0.39, 95% CI -1.17 to 0.39) (very low quality evidence); one of these reported a three-month follow-up with no difference between intervention and comparison (28 participants; SMD 0, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.74) (very low quality evidence). The manual therapy trial reported superiority of complex manual therapy over self-treatment for reducing disability (30 participants; SMD -1.10, 95% CI - 1.88 to -0.33) (very low quality evidence).Reduction in distress showed no difference at the end of treatment between CBT and waiting list (two trials, 58 participants; SMD 0.07, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.60) (very low quality evidence); one of these reported a three-month follow-up with no difference between intervention and comparison (28 participants; SMD -0.24, 95% CI -0.50 to 0.99) (very low quality evidence). The manual therapy trial reported superiority of complex manual therapy over self-treatment for reducing distress (30 participants; SMD -1.26, 95% CI - 2.06 to -0.47) (very low quality evidence).The risk of bias was considered high given the small number of trials, small size of trials, and the likelihood that each was underpowered for the comparisons it reported. We primarily downgraded the quality of the evidence due to small numbers in trials, lack of intention-to-treat analyses, high unaccounted dropout, lack of detail on study methods, and CIs around effect sizes that included no effect, benefit, and harm.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of any intervention for persistent pain in survivors of torture.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Vol/bind 8
Sider (fra-til) CD012051
ISSN 1361-6137
Status Udgivet - 18 aug. 2017

Interventions to improve access to cataract surgical services and their impact on equity in low- and middle-income countries

Ramke, J., Petkovic, J., Welch, V., Blignault, I., Gilbert, C., Blanchet, K., Christensen, R., Zwi, A. B. & Tugwell, P. 9 nov. 2017 I : Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11, s. CD011307

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftReviewForskningpeer review

BACKGROUND: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the prevalence is inequitably distributed between and within countries. Interventions have been undertaken to improve cataract surgical services, however, the effectiveness of these interventions on promoting equity is not known.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on equity of interventions to improve access to cataract services for populations with cataract blindness (and visual impairment) in LMICs.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 12 April 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 12 April 2017), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 12 April 2017), the ISRCTN registry (; searched 12 April 2017, (; searched 12 April 2017 and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (; searched 12 April 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that reported on strategies to improve access to cataract services in LMICs using the following study designs: randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series studies. Included studies were conducted in LMICs, and were targeted at disadvantaged populations, or disaggregated outcome data by 'PROGRESS-Plus' factors (Place of residence; Race/ethnicity/ culture/ language; Occupation; Gender/sex; Religion; Education; Socio-economic status; Social capital/networks. The 'Plus' component includes disability, sexual orientation and age).

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (JR and JP) independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed them for risk of bias. Meta-analysis was not possible, so included studies were synthesised in table and text.

MAIN RESULTS: From a total of 2865 studies identified in the search, two met our eligibility criteria, both of which were cluster-RCTs conducted in rural China. The way in which the trials were conducted means that the risk of bias is unclear. In both studies, villages were randomised to be either an intervention or control group. Adults identified with vision-impairing cataract, following village-based vision and eye health assessment, either received an intervention to increase uptake of cataract surgery (if their village was an intervention group), or to receive 'standard care' (if their village was a control group).One study (n = 434), randomly allocated 26 villages or townships to the intervention, which involved watching an informational video and receiving counselling about cataract and cataract surgery, while the control group were advised that they had decreased vision due to cataract and it could be treated, without being shown the video or receiving counselling. There was low-certainty evidence that providing information and counselling had no effect on uptake of referral to the hospital (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.67, 1 RCT, 434 participants) and little or no effect on the uptake of surgery (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.84, 1 RCT, 434 participants). We assessed the level of evidence to be of low-certainty for both outcomes, due to indirectness of evidence and imprecision of results.The other study (n = 355, 24 towns randomised) included three intervention arms: free surgery; free surgery plus reimbursement of transport costs; and free surgery plus free transport to and from the hospital. These were compared to the control group, which was reminded to use the "low-cost" (˜USD 38) surgical service. There was low-certainty evidence that surgical fee waiver with/without transport provision or reimbursement increased uptake of surgery (RR 1.94, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.31, 1 RCT, 355 participants). We assessed the level of evidence to be of low-certainty due to indirectness of evidence and imprecision of results.Neither of the studies reported our primary outcome of change in prevalence of cataract blindness, or other outcomes such as cataract surgical coverage, surgical outcome, or adverse effects. Neither study disaggregated outcomes by social subgroups to enable further assessment of equity effects. We sought data from both studies and obtained data from one; the information video and counselling intervention did not have a differential effect across the PROGRESS-Plus categories with available data (place of residence, gender, education level, socioeconomic status and social capital).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence on the effect on equity of interventions to improve access to cataract services in LMICs is limited. We identified only two studies, both conducted in rural China. Assessment of equity effects will be improved if future studies disaggregate outcomes by relevant social subgroups. To assist with assessing generalisability of findings to other settings, robust data on contextual factors are also needed.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Vol/bind 11
Sider (fra-til) CD011307
ISSN 1361-6137
Status Udgivet - 9 nov. 2017

Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the standardized ultrasound protocol for assessing subacromial structures

Hougs Kjær, B., Ellegaard, K., Wieland, I., Warming, S. & Juul-Kristensen, B. maj 2017 I : Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 33, 5, s. 398-409 12 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

BACKGROUND: US-examinations related to shoulder impingement (SI) often vary due to methodological differences, examiner positions, transducers, and recording parameters. Reliable US protocols for examination of different structures related to shoulder impingement are therefore needed.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the existing ultrasound (US) examinations of the subacromial space, the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, and the supraspinatus tendon.

METHOD: In a three-phased design, two physiotherapists using a standardized US protocol examined the thickness of the supraspinatus tendon (SUPRA) and subacromial subdeltoid (SASD) bursa in two imaging positions, and the acromial humeral distance (AHD) in one position. Additionally, agreement on dynamic impingement (DI) examination was performed. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was carried out on the same day.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-six sports active participants with a mean age of 37 years (range 18-57) participated. Twenty-two had SI and pain within previous week and 24 did not have SI or pain within previous week.

RESULTS: Intra- and inter-rater reliability ICC (2,3) models were all above 0.80 (range 0.82-0.99) with no systematic bias (Bland Altman plots). For the DI examination, the overall agreement was 98% and 93%, with Kappa of 0.96 and 0.82, for intra- and inter-rater reliability, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The reliability of the current standardized protocol for US examination of SI was excellent and considered feasible for clinical practice.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Vol/bind 33
Tidsskriftsnummer 5
Sider (fra-til) 398-409
Antal sider 12
ISSN 0959-3985
Status Udgivet - maj 2017

Introducing Standing Weight-bearing MRI in the Di-agnostics of Low Back Pain and Degenerative Spinal Disorders

Hansen, B. B. okt. 2017 I : Danish Medical Bulletin (Online). 64, 10

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

This PhD thesis is based on three scientific papers. In 2011 the Parker Institute the department of rheumatology introduced standing weight-bearing MRI (G-Scan, ESAOTE, Genova, Italy) in the diagnostic of low back pain patients. Unfortunately, we experienced a substantial risk of fainting (orthostatic syncope) during standing pMRI. In paper 1 we present in an observational study that the risk of fainting (19%) during standing pMRI could almost be eliminated by the use of an external pneumatic compression device (2%). The lumbar lordosis in the standing position is a significant contributor to positional changes in the morphology in the lumbar spine. In paper 2, we present in an observational study that changes in lumbar lordosis angle (ΔLA) between the conventional supine and standing position were independent of pain and the degenerative disc score. Before a full introduction of standing pMRI in clinical practice, it is important to know if the interpretation of positional changes in common degenerative findings has a sufficient reproducibility. In paper 3, we present in a reliability study that the pMRI evaluation has a fair to substantial reliability, although positional changes in the lumbar spine's morphology from the supine to the standing seems a less reliable outcome. There are currently no international evidence-based recommendations for the use of standing pMRI, and we have limited knowledge about how to interpret these positional changes in the lumbar spine into a clinical context. Therefore, further research is warranted to test the precision (sensitivity and specificity) in prospective longitudinal studies or RCTs. However, from a clinical perspective it seems logical to scan patients with low back pain in the position worsening their symptoms - typically the upright position. Therefore, standing pMRI may provide a higher diagnostic specificity and additional benefit to low back pain patients in the future.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Danish Medical Bulletin (Online)
Vol/bind 64
Tidsskriftsnummer 10
ISSN 1603-9629
Status Udgivet - okt. 2017

Investigating the causal effect of smoking on hay fever and asthma: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis in the CARTA consortium

Skaaby, T., Taylor, A. E., Jacobsen, R. K., Paternoster, L., Thuesen, B. H., Ahluwalia, T. V. S., Larsen, S. C., Zhou, A., Wong, A., Gabrielsen, M. E., Bjørngaard, J. H., Flexeder, C., Männistö, S., Hardy, R., Kuh, D., Barry, S. J., Tang Møllehave, L., Cerqueira, C., Friedrich, N., Bonten, T. N., Noordam, R., Mook-Kanamori, D. O., Taube, C., Jessen, L. E., McConnachie, A., Sattar, N., Upton, M. N., McSharry, C., Bønnelykke, K., Bisgaard, H., Schulz, H., Strauch, K., Meitinger, T., Peters, A., Grallert, H., Nohr, E. A., Kivimaki, M., Kumari, M., Völker, U., Nauck, M., Völzke, H., Power, C., Hyppönen, E., Hansen, T., Jørgensen, T., Pedersen, O., Salomaa, V., Grarup, N., Langhammer, A., Romundstad, P. R., Skorpen, F., Kaprio, J., R Munafò, M. & Linneberg, A. 22 maj 2017 I : Scientific Reports. 7, 1, s. 2224 7 s.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Observational studies on smoking and risk of hay fever and asthma have shown inconsistent results. However, observational studies may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as markers of exposures to examine causal effects. We examined the causal effect of smoking on hay fever and asthma by using the smoking-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16969968/rs1051730. We included 231,020 participants from 22 population-based studies. Observational analyses showed that current vs never smokers had lower risk of hay fever (odds ratio (OR) = 0·68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0·61, 0·76; P < 0·001) and allergic sensitization (OR = 0·74, 95% CI: 0·64, 0·86; P < 0·001), but similar asthma risk (OR = 1·00, 95% CI: 0·91, 1·09; P = 0·967). Mendelian randomization analyses in current smokers showed a slightly lower risk of hay fever (OR = 0·958, 95% CI: 0·920, 0·998; P = 0·041), a lower risk of allergic sensitization (OR = 0·92, 95% CI: 0·84, 1·02; P = 0·117), but higher risk of asthma (OR = 1·06, 95% CI: 1·01, 1·11; P = 0·020) per smoking-increasing allele. Our results suggest that smoking may be causally related to a higher risk of asthma and a slightly lower risk of hay fever. However, the adverse events associated with smoking limit its clinical significance.

Originalsprog Engelsk
Tidsskrift Scientific Reports
Vol/bind 7
Tidsskriftsnummer 1
Sider (fra-til) 2224
Antal sider 7
ISSN 2045-2322
Status Udgivet - 22 maj 2017