Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitously present in the environment and suspected of carcinogenic, neurological and immunological effects. Our objective was to identify determinants of adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides experienced by a general Danish population. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. We examined geography, gender, age, lactation, body mass index (BMI) and intake of nine dietary groups and tap water drinks, as potential determinants of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorocyclohexane, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane. Living in Copenhagen city and age at enrolment showed positive associations with all compounds. BMI was positively associated with all compounds except cis-nonachlor. Fatty-fish consumption showed positive associations with cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, DDT and dieldrin and fruit and vegetables were inversely associated with dieldrin. Determinant estimates of trans-nonachlor were similar to estimates of total chlordanes while cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane seemed to differ. This is one of the first studies of organochlorine pesticides predictors in adipose tissue and contributes to the ongoing debate about exposure sources of these compounds. Single determinants varied among the individual compounds, even within related chlordane residues, suggesting that organochlorine pesticides should not be treated as a homogenous group.